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72(t) Distributions

Sometimes you can take penalty-free early withdrawals from retirement accounts.

Do you need to access your retirement money early? Maybe you just want to retire before you turn 60 and plan a lifelong income stream from the money you have saved and invested. You may be surprised to know that the Internal Revenue Service allows you a way to do this, provided you do it carefully.

Usually, anyone who takes money out of an IRA or a retirement plan prior to age 59½ faces a 10% early withdrawal penalty on the distribution. That isn’t always the case, however. You may be able to avoid the requisite penalty by taking distributions compliant with Internal Revenue Code Section 72(t)(2).1

While any money you take out of the plan will amount to taxable income, you can position yourself to avoid that extra 10% tax hit by breaking that early IRA or retirement plan distribution down into a series of substantially equal periodic payments (SEPPs). These periodic withdrawals must occur at least once a year, and they must continue for at least 5 full years or until you turn 59½, whichever period is longer. (Optionally, you can make SEPP withdrawals every six months or on a quarterly or monthly basis.)1,2

How do you figure out the SEPPs? They must be calculated before you can take them, using one of three I.R.S. methods. Some people assume they can just divide the balance of their IRA or 401(k) by five and withdraw that amount per year – but that is not the way to determine them.2

You should calculate your potential SEPPs by each of the three methods. When the math is complete, you can schedule your SEPPs in the way that makes the most sense for you.

The Required Minimum Distribution (RMD) method calculates the SEPP amount by dividing your IRA or retirement plan balance at the end of the previous year by the life expectancy factor from the I.R.S. Single Life Expectancy Table, the Joint Life and Last Survivor Expectancy Table, or the Uniform Lifetime Table.1,2

The Fixed Amortization method amortizes your retirement account balance into SEPPs based on your life expectancy. A variation on this, the Fixed Annuitization method, calculates SEPPs using your current age and the mortality table in Appendix B of Rev. Ruling 2002-62.1,2

If you use the Fixed Amortization or Fixed Annuitization method, you are also required to use a reasonable interest rate in calculating the withdrawals. That interest rate can’t exceed more than 120% of the federal midterm rate announced periodically by the I.R.S.1,3

A lot to absorb? It certainly is. The financial professional you know can help you figure all this out, and online calculators also come in handy (Bankrate.com has a good one).

There are some common blunders that can wreck a 72(t) distribution. You should be aware of them if you want to schedule SEPPs.

If you are taking SEPPs from a qualified workplace retirement plan instead of an IRA, you must separate from service (that is, quit working for that employer) before you take them. If you are 51 when you quit and start taking SEPPs from your retirement plan, and you change your mind at 53 and decide you want to keep working, you still have this retirement account that you are obligated to draw down through age 56 – not a good scenario.1

Once you start taking SEPPs, you are locked into them for five consecutive years or until you reach age 59½. If you break that commitment or deviate from the SEPP schedule or calculation method you have set, a 10% early withdrawal penalty could apply to all the SEPPs you have already made, with interest. (Some individuals can claim exceptions to this penalty under I.R.S. rules.)3,4

The I.R.S. does permit you to make a one-time change to your distribution method without penalty: if you start with the Fixed Amortization or Fixed Annuitization method, you can opt to switch to the RMD method. You can’t switch out of the RMD method to either the Fixed Amortization or Fixed Annuitization method, however.2

If you want or need to take 72(t) distributions, ask for help. A financial professional can help you plan to do it right.

This material was prepared by MarketingPro, Inc., and does not necessarily represent the views of the presenting party, nor their affiliates. This information has been derived from sources believed to be accurate. Please note – investing involves risk, and past performance is no guarantee of future results. The publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting or other professional services. If assistance is needed, the reader is advised to engage the services of a competent professional. This information should not be construed as investment, tax or legal advice and may not be relied on for the purpose of avoiding any Federal tax penalty. This is neither a solicitation nor recommendation to purchase or sell any investment or insurance product or service, and should not be relied upon as such. All indices are unmanaged and are not illustrative of any particular investment.

Citations.

1 – irs.gov/Retirement-Plans/Retirement-Plans-FAQs-regarding-Substantially-Equal-Periodic-Payments [12/19/17]
2 – fool.com/retirement/2017/05/19/use-your-retirement-savings-early-with-substantial.aspx [5/19/17]
3 – thebalance.com/how-to-use-72-t-payments-for-early-ira-withdrawals-2388257 [9/20/17]
4 – military.com/money/retirement/second-retirement/early-retirement-options.html [5/7/18]

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The Backdoor Roth IRA

A move that high earners can make in pursuit of tax-free retirement income.

Does your high income stop you from contributing to a Roth IRA? It does not necessarily prohibit you from having one. You may be able to create a backdoor Roth IRA and give yourself the potential for a tax-free income stream in retirement.

If you think you will be in a high tax bracket when you retire, a tax-free income stream may be just what you want. The backdoor Roth IRA is a maneuver you can make in pursuit of that goal – a perfectly legal workaround, its legitimacy further affirmed by language in the Tax Cuts & Jobs Act of 2017.1

You establish a backdoor Roth IRA in two steps. The first step: make a non-deductible contribution to a traditional IRA. (In other words, you contribute after-tax dollars to it, as you would to a Roth retirement account.)1

The second step: convert that traditional IRA to a Roth IRA or transfer the traditional IRA balance to a Roth. A trustee-to-trustee transfer may be the easiest way to do this – the funds simply move from the financial institution serving as custodian of the traditional IRA to the one serving as custodian of the Roth IRA. (The destination Roth IRA can even be a Roth IRA you used to contribute to when your income was lower.) Subsequently, you report the conversion to the Internal Revenue Service using Form 8606.1,2

When you have owned your Roth IRA for five years and are 59½ or older, you can withdraw its earnings, tax free. You may not be able to make contributions to your Roth IRA because of your income level, but you will never have to draw the account down because original owners of Roth IRAs never have to make mandatory withdrawals from their accounts by a certain age (unlike original owners of traditional IRAs).1,3

You may be wondering: why would any pre-retiree dismiss this chance to go Roth? It comes down to one word: taxes.

The amount of the conversion is subject to income tax. If you are funding a brand-new traditional IRA with several thousand dollars and converting that relatively small balance to a Roth, the tax hit may be minor, even non-existent (as you will soon see). If you have a large traditional IRA and convert that account to a Roth, the increase in your taxable income may send you into a higher tax bracket in the year of the conversion.2

From a pure tax standpoint, it may make sense to start small when you create a backdoor IRA and begin the process with a new traditional IRA funded entirely with non-deductible contributions. If you go that route, the Roth conversion is tax free, because you have already paid taxes on the money involved.1

The takeaway in all this? When considering a backdoor IRA, evaluate the taxes you might pay today versus the tax benefits you might realize tomorrow.

The taxes on the conversion amount, incidentally, are calculated pro rata – proportionately in respect to the original, traditional IRA’s percentage of pre-tax contributions and earnings. If you are converting multiple traditional IRA balances into a backdoor Roth – which you can do – you must take these percentages into account.1

Three footnotes are worth remembering. One, a backdoor Roth IRA must be created before you reach age 70½ (the age of mandatory traditional IRA withdrawals). Two, you cannot make a backdoor IRA move without earned income because you need to earn income to make a non-deductible contribution to a traditional IRA. Three, joint filers can each make non-deductible contributions to a traditional IRA pursuant to a Roth conversion, even if one spouse does not work; in that case, the working spouse can cover the non-deductible traditional IRA contribution for the non-working spouse (who has to be younger than age 70½).1

A backdoor Roth IRA might be a real plus for your retirement. If it frustrates you that you cannot contribute to a Roth IRA because of your income, explore this possibility with insight from your financial or tax professional.

Traditional IRA account owners should consider the tax ramifications, age and income restrictions in regards to executing a conversion from a Traditional IRA to a Roth IRA. The converted amount is generally subject to income taxation. The

Roth IRA offers tax deferral on any earnings in the account. Withdrawals from the account may be tax free, as long as they are

considered qualified. Limitations and restrictions may apply. Withdrawals prior to age 59 ½ or prior to the account being opened for 5 years, whichever is later, may result in a 10% IRS penalty tax. Future tax laws can change at any time and may impact the benefits of Roth IRAs. Their tax treatment may change.

This material was prepared by MarketingPro, Inc., and does not necessarily represent the views of the presenting party, nor their affiliates. This information has been derived from sources believed to be accurate. Please note – investing involves risk, and past performance is no guarantee of future results. The publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting or other professional services. If assistance is needed, the reader is advised to engage the services of a competent professional. This information should not be construed as investment, tax or legal advice and may not be relied on for the purpose of avoiding any Federal tax penalty. This is neither a solicitation nor recommendation to purchase or sell any investment or insurance product or service, and should not be relied upon as such. All indices are unmanaged and are not illustrative of any particular investment.

Citations.
1 – investors.com/etfs-and-funds/retirement/backdoor-roth-ira-tax-free-retirement-income-legal-loophole/ [4/19/18]
2 – investopedia.com/retirement/too-rich-roth-do/ [1/29/18]
3 – irs.gov/retirement-plans/retirement-plans-faqs-regarding-required-minimum-distributions [11/16/17]

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The A, B, C, & D of Medicare

Breaking down the basics & what each part covers.

Whether your 65th birthday is on the horizon or decades away, you should understand the parts of Medicare – what they cover and where they come from.

Parts A & B: Original Medicare. America created a national health insurance program for seniors in 1965 with two components. Part A is hospital insurance. It provides coverage for inpatient stays at medical facilities. It can also help cover the costs of hospice care, home health care, and nursing home care – but not for long and only under certain parameters.1

Seniors are frequently warned that Medicare will only pay for a maximum of 100 days of nursing home care (provided certain conditions are met). Part A is the part that does so. Under current rules, you pay $0 for days 1-20 of skilled nursing facility (SNF) care under Part A. During days 21-100, a $167.50 daily coinsurance payment may be required of you.2

If you stop receiving SNF care for more than 30 days, you need a new 3-day hospital stay to qualify for further nursing home care under Part A. If you can go 60 days in a row without SNF care, the clock resets: you are once again eligible for up to 100 days of SNF benefits via Part A.2

Part B is medical insurance and can help pick up some of the tab for physical therapy, physician services, expenses for durable medical equipment (scooters, wheelchairs), and other medical services such as lab tests and varieties of health screenings.1

Part B isn’t free. You pay monthly premiums to get it and a yearly deductible (plus 20% of costs). The premiums vary according to the Medicare recipient’s income level. The standard monthly premium amount is $134 this year, but some people who receive Social Security benefits are paying lower Part B premiums (on average, $130). The current yearly deductible is $183. (Some people automatically receive Part B coverage, but others must sign up for it.)3

Part C: Medicare Advantage plans. Insurance companies offer these Medicare-approved plans. Part C plans offer seniors all the benefits of Part A and Part B and more: many feature prescription drug coverage as well as vision and dental benefits. To enroll in a Part C plan, you need have Part A and Part B coverage in place. To keep up your Part C coverage, you must keep up your payment of Part B premiums as well as your Part C premiums.4

To say not all Part C plans are alike is an understatement. Provider networks, premiums, copays, coinsurance, and out-of-pocket spending limits can all vary widely, so shopping around is wise. During Medicare’s annual Open Enrollment Period (October 15 – December 7), seniors can choose to switch out of Original Medicare to a Part C plan or vice versa; although any such move is much wiser with a Medigap policy already in place.5

How does a Medigap plan differ from a Part C plan? Medigap plans (also called Medicare Supplement plans) emerged to address the gaps in Part A and Part B coverage. If you have Part A and Part B already in place, a Medigap policy can pick up some copayments, coinsurance, and deductibles for you. Some Medigap policies can even help you pay for medical care outside the United States. You pay Part B premiums in addition to Medigap plan premiums to keep a Medigap policy in effect. These plans no longer offer prescription drug coverage; in fact, they have been sold without drug coverage since 2006.6

Part D: prescription drug plans. While Part C plans commonly offer prescription drug coverage, insurers also sell Part D plans as a standalone product to those with Original Medicare. As per Medigap and Part C coverage, you need to keep paying Part B premiums in addition to premiums for the drug plan to keep Part D coverage going.7

Every Part D plan has a formulary, a list of medications covered under the plan. Most Part D plans rank approved drugs into tiers by cost. The good news is that Medicare’s website will determine the best Part D plan for you. Go to medicare.gov/find-a-plan to start your search; enter your medications and the website will do the legwork for you.8

Part C & Part D plans are assigned ratings. Medicare annually rates these plans (one star being worst; five stars being best) according to member satisfaction, provider network(s), and quality of coverage. As you search for a plan at medicare.gov, you also have a chance to check out the rankings.9

This material was prepared by MarketingPro, Inc., and does not necessarily represent the views of the presenting party, nor their affiliates. This information has been derived from sources believed to be accurate. Please note – investing involves risk, and past performance is no guarantee of future results. The publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting or other professional services. If assistance is needed, the reader is advised to engage the services of a competent professional. This information should not be construed as investment, tax or legal advice and may not be relied on for the purpose of avoiding any Federal tax penalty. This is neither a solicitation nor recommendation to purchase or sell any investment or insurance product or service, and should not be relied upon as such. All indices are unmanaged and are not illustrative of any particular investment.

Citations.
1 – mymedicarematters.org/coverage/parts-a-b/whats-covered/ [5/8/18]
2 – medicare.gov/coverage/skilled-nursing-facility-care.html [5/8/18]
3 – medicare.gov/your-medicare-costs/part-b-costs/part-b-costs.html [5/8/18]
4 – medicareinteractive.org/get-answers/medicare-health-coverage-options/medicare-advantage-plan-overview/medicare-advantage-basics [5/8/18]
5 – medicare.gov/sign-up-change-plans/when-can-i-join-a-health-or-drug-plan/when-can-i-join-a-health-or-drug-plan.html [5/8/18]
6 – medicare.gov/supplement-other-insurance/medigap/whats-medigap.html [5/8/18]
7 – ehealthinsurance.com/medicare/part-d-cost [5/8/18]
8 – medicare.gov/part-d/coverage/part-d-coverage.html [5/8/18]
9 – medicare.gov/sign-up-change-plans/when-can-i-join-a-health-or-drug-plan/five-star-enrollment/5-star-enrollment-period.html [5/8/18]

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Who’s in Charge Here? Aging Parents Resist Interfering ‘Helicopter’ Children

Joshua Coleman remembers watering down a glass of wine before giving it to his father, then in his 90s.

“What the hell is this?” he recalls his father asking.

“I feel a little guilty about that now,” says Dr. Coleman, whose father died in 2001. “The poor old guy had few remaining pleasures left. But I would have felt bad had he gone back to assisted living and slipped.”

There’s a fine line between being an appropriately concerned adult child and an overly worried, helicopter one, says Dr. Coleman, a psychologist who specializes in family dynamics. If a parent is in an accident, it might be time to talk about driving, as he did after his father sideswiped three cars. But if Mom doesn’t want to wear a hearing aid, it might be wise not to nag. Maybe she doesn’t want to listen to anyone at the moment.

When Cathy Walbert, a mother of five, picked up a baby at a family gathering last year, her daughter rushed to her side, worried she might drop her. Another daughter hovers when Mrs. Walbert—who says she probably is more candid than she was years ago—starts talking to someone. Her son tells her to be careful on the steps.

“I think, ‘What’s wrong with you people?’ I’m an adult,” says Mrs. Walbert, of Pittsburgh who says she is older than 75.

“You start treating them like a child, saying ‘Don’t do this’ or ‘Don’t do that,’ ” says her daughter, Lisa Spor. Her mother, she says, usually responds “What do you mean, ‘Don’t do that?’ ”

A big question adult children need to ask is whether they are intervening for their parents’ well-being or to alleviate their own worries, says William Doherty, a family therapist and professor of Family Social Science at the University of Minnesota. “If your 80-year-father is still driving, you worry,” even if he is capable of driving, he says. “If he’s not driving, you don’t worry, but your father has had a big loss.”

During her career as a clinical psychologist, Laura Carstensen, who is also founding director of Stanford University’s Center on Longevity, heard from both sides. Parents wanted advice on how to get their kids off their back. Adult children wanted advice on how to persuade their parents to give up their family home.

In general, her advice is that unless a parent is cognitively impaired and not aware of the level of his or her impairment, children need to respect the parent’s decision.

“These are difficult situations,” she says. “I know that first-hand.”

In 2015, Dr. Carstensen tried to talk her father, then 95, into leaving New York and moving to the California home she shares with her husband. Her father, a scientist, was still writing and publishing papers. But he was having trouble with balance and lived in a two-story house where he had to go down to the basement to do his laundry.

“Was I worried? Yes, I was worried,” she says. He was hard of hearing, so phone calls were difficult. A few times when she couldn’t reach him, she worried that something had happened, only to learn he had simply gone to the drugstore.

Her father did agree to have activity sensors installed in certain places in the house—his chair by the computer, the refrigerator, the cutlery drawer. Every morning, Dr. Carstensen would check the sensors and if they indicated activity, she knew not to worry.

“He really wanted to live in his own home,” she says. She talked to him about her concerns that he would fall. He told her that falling down in his own home was as “good a way to go as he could imagine.” Her father did eventually die, at 96, after a fall at home.

Do kids need to monitor every time a parent crosses the room or goes to the bathroom? You have to give them space to live their own life.’

                        —Grace Whiting, chief executive of the National Alliance for Caregiving

Grace Whiting, chief executive of the National Alliance for Caregiving, says monitoring devices can turn into a proxy helicopter. They can be extremely useful, especially in the case of an emergency, she says, as long as they don’t compromise the dignity of an older adult. “Do kids need to monitor every time a parent crosses the room or goes to the bathroom?” she asks. “You have to give them space to live their own life.”

Even small, well-intentioned acts can send the wrong message to parents, says Ellen Langer, a Harvard psychologist and author. If a parent fumbles with the key when trying to unlock a door, kids should be patient and wait, rather than grabbing the key and taking over. While you may be trying to be helpful, the message, deliberate or not, is that you are competent, and the parent isn’t, she says.

When Rip Kempthorne’s parents were having trouble covering the mortgage on their farm in Kansas, he suggested they relocate to Olympia, Wash., and move in with his young family. They did. Charley, 80, and June, 71, have a basement apartment to themselves. Their 5-year-old granddaughter runs in and out.

“There was no pressure,” says Charley Kempthorne. He and his wife expect the time will come when they can’t make decisions on their own and are grateful to be with family before that time comes. For the moment, the younger Kempthornes don’t have to hover over Charley and June because they watch out for each other.

June tells Charley to put in his hearing aid. He tells her not to leap out of the car. After several falls, she has given up sandals for sturdier shoes. “They won’t let me carry groceries,” says June, but that is probably a good thing. “I tend to carry too much and fall over.”

David Solie, an expert in geriatric psychology, says he was overly anxious when caring for his mother, Carol. As her health deteriorated, he was urged by a cousin, who lived closer to her, to move her into assisted living, which she strongly opposed. At one point, he went to the family attorney asking what he could do. The attorney told him his mother moved slowly and couldn’t open a jar of food, but was coherent and articulate. He advised Mr. Solie to wait, which he ultimately did. His mother remained at home until she had a massive stroke.

In retrospect, Mr. Solie says he wishes he had relaxed more and not been so consumed by getting her to give up her home.

Mr. Solie cautions other adult children against trying to make sure everything is perfect, with every pill taken and every appointment kept. “Don’t point out everything that they forgot or that they aren’t as clean as they should be,” he says. “Cut them some slack.” And if they want to date—something that many adult children oppose for fear of their parents being hurt or losing part of their inheritance—don’t stand in the way. “Allow them to be happy.”

How to avoid becoming a helicopter child:

  • Unless your father or mother has dementia, don’t make decisions for him or her. Discuss matters and remember he or she has a right to take informed risks.
  • If you and your parents don’t agree on their level of competence, consult a professional together.
  • Don’t go through your parents’ mail or screen their calls unless asked.
  • Pick your battles. If a parent is getting lost or has stopped bathing, talk about what help he or she might need to remain independent. If his or her clothes don’t match, get over it.
  • If a parent has cataracts in both eyes and continues to drive at night, ask the primary-care physician to intervene.
  • If your parents forget to turn off the stove, don’t jump to the conclusion they can’t stay in their home. Look into devices that turn stoves off automatically.
  • Use classic ‘I’ language, such as: ‘I am concerned about you living in a two-story house after your heart attack.’ Avoid: ‘You can’t live here anymore.’

Write to Clare Ansberry at clare.ansberry@wsj.com. Appeared in the April 24, 2018, print edition as ‘Aging Parents Resist ‘Helicopter’ Children The Right Approach.’

LPL Tracking 1-728975

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Will Teachers Get the Retirement That They Deserve?

Classroom educators are coping with hybrid plans and pension fund shortfalls.

Arizona. Kentucky. Massachusetts. Michigan. Pennsylvania. Rhode Island. Tennessee. In these states and others, teachers are concerned about their financial futures. The retirement programs they were counting on have either restructured or face critical questions.1,2

Increasingly, states are transferring investment risk onto teachers. Hybrid retirement plans are replacing conventional pension plans. These new plans combine a 401(k)-style account with some of the features of a traditional pension program. Payouts from hybrid retirement plans are variable – they can change based on investment returns. The prospect of a fluctuating retirement income is making educators uneasy, especially in states such as Kentucky where teachers do not pay into Social Security.1

Traditional pensions have vanished for teachers starting their careers in Michigan, Rhode Island, and Tennessee. In 2019, that may also happen in Pennsylvania.1

In some states, educators are being asked to offset a shortfall in pension funds. Arizona teachers now must contribute 11.3% of their pay to the Arizona State Retirement System, compared to 2.2% in 1999. (What makes this situation worse is that the average Arizona public schoolteacher earns 10% less today than he or she did in 1999, adjusted for inflation.)2

Classroom teachers in Massachusetts already have 11% of their salaries directed into the state retirement fund; in California, almost 10% of teacher pay goes into the state retirement system. (The national average is 8.6%.) Make no mistake, some of these pension fund problems are major: New Jersey’s state retirement system is only 37% funded, and Kentucky’s is just 38% funded.1,3

How can teachers respond to this crisis? One way is to plan for future income streams beside those from underfunded or reconceived state retirement systems. A talk with a financial professional – particularly one with years of experience helping educators make sound, informed financial decisions – may help identify the options.

That conversation should happen sooner rather than later. Educators in some states are no longer assured of fixed pension payments – and unfortunately, the ranks of these teachers seem to be growing.

This material was prepared by MarketingPro, Inc., and does not necessarily represent the views of the presenting party, nor their affiliates. This information has been derived from sources believed to be accurate. Please note – investing involves risk, and past performance is no guarantee of future results. The publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting or other professional services. If assistance is needed, the reader is advised to engage the services of a competent professional. This information should not be construed as investment, tax or legal advice and may not be relied on for the purpose of avoiding any Federal tax penalty. This is neither a solicitation nor recommendation to purchase or sell any investment or insurance product or service, and should not be relied upon as such. All indices are unmanaged and are not illustrative of any particular investment.

Citations.
1 – money.cnn.com/2018/04/04/retirement/teacher-pensions-kentucky/index.html [4/4/18]
2 – money.cnn.com/2018/04/20/pf/arizona-teacher-pay/index.html [4/20/18]
3 – yankeeinstitute.org/2018/04/bill-seeks-to-lower-teacher-pension-contribution/ [4/11/18]

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The Different Types of IRAs

This popular retirement savings vehicle comes in several varieties.

What don’t you know? Many Americans know about Roth and traditional IRAs, but there are other types of Individual Retirement Arrangements. Here’s a quick look at all the different types of IRAs:

Traditional IRAs (occasionally called deductible IRAs) are the “original” IRAs. In most cases, contributions to a traditional IRA are tax deductible: they reduce your taxable income, and as a consequence, your federal income taxes. Earnings in a traditional IRA grow tax deferred until they are withdrawn, but they will be taxed upon withdrawal, and those withdrawals must begin after the IRA owner reaches age 70½. I.R.S. penalties and income taxes may apply on withdrawals taken prior to age 59½.1

Roth IRAs do not feature tax-deductible contributions, but they offer many potential perks for the future. Like a traditional IRA, they feature tax-deferred growth and compounding. Unlike a traditional IRA, the account contributions may be withdrawn at any time without being taxed, and the earnings may be withdrawn, tax-free, once the IRA owner is older than 59½ and has owned the IRA for at least five years. An original owner of a Roth IRA never has to make mandatory withdrawals after age 70½. In addition, a Roth IRA owner may keep contributing to the account after age 70½, so long as he or she has earned income. (A high income may prevent an individual from making Roth IRA contributions.)1,2

Some traditional IRA owners convert their traditional IRAs into Roth IRAs. Taxes need to be paid once these conversions are made.1

SIMPLE IRAs are traditional IRAs used in a SIMPLE plan, a type of retirement plan for businesses with 100 or fewer workers. Employers and employees can make contributions to SIMPLE IRA accounts. The annual contribution limit for a SIMPLE IRA is more than twice that of a regular traditional IRA.3

SEP-IRAs are Simplified Employee Pension-Individual Retirement Arrangements. These traditional IRAs are used in SEP plans, set up by an employer for employees, and funded only with employer contributions.4

Spousal IRAs really do not exist as a distinct IRA type. The term actually refers to a rule that lets non-working spouses make traditional or Roth IRA contributions as long as the other spouse works and the couple files joint federal tax returns.1

Inherited IRAs are Roth or traditional IRAs inherited from their original owner by either a spousal or non-spousal beneficiary. The rules for Inherited IRAs are very complex. Surviving spouses have the option to roll over IRA assets they inherit into their own IRAs, but other beneficiaries do not. No contributions can be made to Inherited IRAs, which are also sometimes called Beneficiary IRAs.5

Group IRAs are simply traditional IRAs offered by employers, unions, and other employee associations to their employees, administered through trusts.6

Rollover IRAs (occasionally called conduit IRAs) are IRAs created to store assets distributed from another qualified retirement plan, often an employer-sponsored retirement plan. If the original plan were a Roth, then a Roth IRA must be created for the rollover. Assets from a non-Roth plan may be rolled over into a Roth IRA, but the rollover will be viewed as a Roth conversion by the Internal Revenue Service.6,7

Education IRAs are now mainly referred to by their proper name: the Coverdell ESA. A Coverdell ESA is a vehicle that helps middle-class investors save for a child’s education. Taxes are deferred on the assets saved and invested through the account. Contributions to a Coverdell ESA are not deductible, but withdrawals are tax-free, provided they are used to pay for qualified higher education expenses.8

Consult a qualified financial professional regarding your IRA options. There are many choices available, and it is vital that you understand how your choice could affect your financial situation. No one IRA is the “right” IRA for everyone, so do your homework and seek advice before you proceed.

This material was prepared by MarketingPro, Inc., and does not necessarily represent the views of the presenting party, nor their affiliates. This information has been derived from sources believed to be accurate. Please note – investing involves risk, and past performance is no guarantee of future results. The publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting or other professional services. If assistance is needed, the reader is advised to engage the services of a competent professional. This information should not be construed as investment, tax or legal advice and may not be relied on for the purpose of avoiding any Federal tax penalty. This is neither a solicitation nor recommendation to purchase or sell any investment or insurance product or service, and should not be relied upon as such. All indices are unmanaged and are not illustrative of any particular investment.

Citations.

1 – thestreet.com/story/14545108/1/traditional-or-roth-ira-or-both.html [4/4/18]

2 – forbes.com/sites/catherineschnaubelt/2018/04/25/choosing-the-best-ira-to-maximize-your-retirement-savings/ [4/25/18]

3 – fool.com/retirement/2017/10/28/2018-simple-ira-limits.aspx [10/28/17]

4 – investopedia.com/university/retirementplans/sepira/ [11/14/17]

5 – investopedia.com/terms/i/inherited_ira.asp [4/30/18]

6 – fool.com/retirement/iras/the-eleven-types.aspx [4/30/18]

7 – investor.vanguard.com/401k-rollover/options [4/30/18]

8 – investopedia.com/terms/c/coverdellesa.asp [4/30/18]

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Adjusting Your Portfolio as You Age

As you approach retirement, it may be time to pay more attention to investment risk.

If you are an experienced investor, you have probably fine-tuned your portfolio through the years in response to market cycles or in pursuit of a better return. As you approach or enter retirement, is another adjustment necessary?

Some investors may think they can approach retirement without looking at their portfolios. Their investment allocations may be little changed from what they were 10 or 15 years ago. Because of that inattention (and this long bull market), their invested assets may be exposed to more risk than they would like.

Rebalancing your portfolio with your time horizon in mind is only practical. Consider the nature of equity investments: they lose or gain value according to the market climate, which at times may be fear driven. The larger your equities position, the larger your losses could be in a bear market or market disruption. If this kind of calamity happens when you are newly retired or two or three years away from retiring, your portfolio could be hit hard if you are holding too much stock. What if it takes you several years to recoup your losses? Would those losses force you to compromise your retirement goals?

As certain asset classes outperform others over time, a portfolio can veer off course. The asset classes achieving the better returns come to represent a greater percentage of the portfolio assets. The intended asset allocations may be thrown out of alignment.1

Just how much of your portfolio is held in equities today? Could the amount be 70%, 75%, 80%? It might be, given the way stocks have performed in this decade. As a StreetAuthority comparison notes, a hypothetical portfolio weighted 50/50 in equities and fixed-income investments at the end of February 2009 would have been weighted 74/26 in favor of stocks by the end of February 2018.1

Ideally, you reduce your risk exposure with time. With that objective in mind, you should regularly rebalance your portfolio to maintain or revise its allocations. You also may want to apportion your portfolio, so that you have some cash for distributions once you are retired.

Rebalancing could be a good idea for other reasons. Perhaps you want to try and stay away from market sectors that seem overvalued. Or, perhaps you want to find opportunities. Maybe an asset class or sector is doing well and is underrepresented in your investment mix. Alternately, you may want to revise your portfolio in view of income or capital gains taxes.

Rebalancing is not about chasing the return, but reducing volatility. The goal is to manage risk exposure, and with less risk, there may be less potential for a return. When you reach a certain age, though, “playing defense” with your invested assets should be a priority.

* Investing involves risks including possible loss of principal. No investment strategy or risk management technique can guarantee return or eliminate risk in all market environments.

This material was prepared by MarketingPro, Inc., and does not necessarily represent the views of the presenting party, nor their affiliates. This information has been derived from sources believed to be accurate. Please note – investing involves risk, and past performance is no guarantee of future results. The publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting or other professional services. If assistance is needed, the reader is advised to engage the services of a competent professional. This information should not be construed as investment, tax or legal advice and may not be relied on for the purpose of avoiding any Federal tax penalty. This is neither a solicitation nor recommendation to purchase or sell any investment or insurance product or service, and should not be relied upon as such. All indices are unmanaged and are not illustrative of any particular investment.

 

Citations.

1 – nasdaq.com/article/how-to-prepare-your-income-portfolio-for-volatility-cm939499 [3/26/18]

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Using a Roth IRA as a College Savings Tool

A tax-advantaged option too many families overlook.

At first glance, a Roth IRA might seem an unusual college savings vehicle. Upon further examination, it may look like a particularly smart choice.

A Roth IRA allows you to save for college without the constraints of a college fund. This is an important distinction, because you cannot predict everything about your child’s educational future. What if you contribute to a 529 plan or a Coverdell ESA and then your child decides not to go to college? Or, what if you save for years through one of these plans with the goal of paying tuition at an elite school and then a great university steps forward to offer your child a major scholarship or a full ride?

If you take funds out of a Coverdell ESA or 529 college savings plan and use them for anything but qualified education expenses, an income tax bill will result, plus a 10% Internal Revenue Service penalty on account earnings. (The 10% penalty is waived for 529 plan beneficiaries who get scholarships.)1,2

You gain flexibility when you save for college using a Roth IRA. If your child gets a scholarship, elects not to attend college, or goes to a cheaper college than you anticipated, you still have an invested, tax-advantaged account left to use for your retirement, with the potential to withdraw 100% of it, tax free.3

You can withdraw Roth IRA contributions at any time, for any reason, without incurring taxes or penalties. When you are an original owner of a Roth IRA and you are age 59½ or older, you can withdraw your Roth IRA’s earnings, tax free, so long as the IRA has existed for five years. From a college savings standpoint, all this may be advantageous. Parents 60 and older who have owned a Roth for at least five years may draw it down without any of that money being taxed, and younger parents may withdraw at least part of the money in a Roth IRA, tax free.4

You probably know that the I.R.S. discourages withdrawals of Roth IRA earnings before age 59½ with a 10% early withdrawal penalty. This penalty is not assessed, however, if the early withdrawal is used for qualified higher education expenses. Occasionally, parents roll over money from workplace retirement plans into Roth IRAs to take advantage of this exemption.5

With a Roth IRA, your investment options are broad. In contrast, many 529 college savings plans give you only limited investment choices.1

You can even save for college with a Roth IRA before your child is born. No doing that with a 529 plan – you can only start one after your child has a Social Security Number.6

Admittedly, a Roth IRA is not a perfect college savings vehicle. It has some drawbacks, and the big one is the annual contribution limit. You can currently contribute up to $5,500 to a Roth IRA per year, $6,500 per year if you are 50 or older. That pales next to the limits for 529 college savings plans (though it certainly exceeds the yearly limit for Coverdell ESAs).2,7

Some families earn too much money to open a Roth IRA. Joint filers, for example, cannot contribute to a Roth if they make in excess of $198,999 in 2018. There is a potential move around this obstacle: the so-called “backdoor Roth IRA.” You create a “backdoor Roth IRA” by rolling over assets from a traditional IRA into a Roth. That action has tax consequences, and once the rollover is made, you are prohibited from putting the assets back into the traditional IRA.4,7

Lastly, there is a bit of an impact on financial aid prospects. When funds are distributed from a Roth IRA and used to pay for college costs, those distributions are defined as untaxed income on the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA). Fortunately, the total asset value of the Roth IRA is not reported on the FAFSA.7

Roth IRAs may help families who want to save for retirement and college. If you already have a good start on retirement savings and want to open one with the intention of using it as a college fund, it may be a prudent idea. If you like the potential of having tax-free retirement income and may need a little more college funding for your kids, it may be a good idea as well. Talk to a financial professional to see how well it might fit in your overall financial or retirement strategy.

This material was prepared by MarketingPro, Inc., and does not necessarily represent the views of the presenting party, nor their affiliates. This information has been derived from sources believed to be accurate. Please note – investing involves risk, and past performance is no guarantee of future results. The publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting or other professional services. If assistance is needed, the reader is advised to engage the services of a competent professional. This information should not be construed as investment, tax or legal advice and may not be relied on for the purpose of avoiding any Federal tax penalty. This is neither a solicitation nor recommendation to purchase or sell any investment or insurance product or service, and should not be relied upon as such. All indices are unmanaged and are not illustrative of any particular investment.

 

Citations.

1 – fool.com/retirement/2018/03/25/3-reasons-not-to-rely-on-529-plans.aspx [3/25/18]

2 – quicken.com/rules-withdrawing-education-savings-accounts [4/17/18]

3 – tinyurl.com/yd4mjdbh [3/28/18]

4 – investor.vanguard.com/ira/roth-ira [4/17/18]

5 – budgeting.thenest.com/can-use-rollover-ira-finance-sons-college-education-23928.html [4/17/18]

6 – bankrate.com/banking/savings/529-college-plan-downsides/ [2/27/18]

7 – thebalance.com/is-it-okay-to-use-a-roth-ira-to-pay-for-college-expenses-4009940 [1/31/18]

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Where Retirees Underestimate Spending

Where Retirees Underestimate Spending         

Underestimating how much you’ll spend can be costly, so it’s key to know the common pitfalls

 

Navigating retirement can be difficult for lots of reasons. One of the biggest is that it forces people to make plans based on spending assumptions that won’t become a reality for decades.

Guessing wrong can be the difference between a comfortable retirement and one that is a struggle.

“It’s a lot more difficult to recover in retirement,” says Adam Van Wie, a financial planner in Jacksonville Beach, Fla. “You can try to find another job, but that’s not an option for everyone.”

We spoke to financial advisers about some of the most frequent mistakes people make when it comes to estimating how much they’ll spend in retirement.

Helping family. You may be willing to slash your own expenses in retirement if times get tough. What will you do if your children, or grandchildren, get in a bind? Saying no is much harder.

  • In Defense of thsy Retirement

But saying yes can imperil your own retirement. A number of parents who guaranteed their children’s school loans have seen their own finances ruined when the child defaulted on the loan.

Mark McCarron, a financial planner in Charlottesville, Va., is working with a retired couple who paid for the wedding of one daughter, and expect to pay shortly for the wedding of their other daughter as well.

They have the cash, says Mr. McCarron. The rub is that they just hadn’t planned on paying for weddings when they retired, and it reduces the funds they can draw upon for other purposes.

Big-ticket periodic items. Would-be retirees often meticulously estimate day-to-day expenses, but forget to factor in more periodic, and mostly predictable, expenses like a new car or a new roof. And those big-ticket items inevitably blow holes in their budgets.

Dana Anspach, a financial planner in Scottsdale, Ariz., recommends that clients set aside 3% of the value of their house each year for maintenance—as well as plan on setting aside money for the periodic new car.

One caveat: Beware of taking big chunks of money out of a 401(k) or other tax-deferred accounts, Ms. Anspach says. Such withdrawals are treated as taxable income and can push retirees into a higher tax bracket. A better approach is to withdraw the money gradually over a two- or three-year period for an expected expense.

Belinda Ellison of Greenville, S.C., who recently retired as a lawyer, sets aside money for unforeseen landscaping expenses. So she was ready when she had to spend $10,000 recently to remove a huge tree on her property. Ms. Ellison owns a 100-year-old home, and has another fund set up for renovation expenses.

It’s not so with everybody she knows. “I have friends who have trouble when they need a new set of tires,” Ms. Ellison says.

Entertainment. Many retirees are surprised at how much their entertainment costs rise when they stop working, says Neil A. Brown, a financial adviser in West Columbia, S.C. Instead of working five or six days a week and playing one, it can be the opposite. “You’ve got five or six days to play,” Mr. Brown says.

Americans age 65 to 74 spent an average $5,832 on entertainment in 2015, according to a study from the Employment Benefit Research Institute, based in Washington, D.C. Entertainment spending declines with age; people 85 and over in the study spent $2,232 on average.

Health care. Even Medicare recipients are frequently shocked by the cost of health care, says Joan Cox, a financial planner in Covington, La. Ms. Cox says a married couple in their late 60s can expect to spend close to $13,000 a year in medical expenses. That assumes $8,000 in Medicare premiums and supplemental insurance premiums, $1,200 for drug coverage, and $3,700 in out-of-pocket expenses.

 

“I’ll do their financial plan, and it looks like they have plenty of assets” for retirement, she says. “Then I’ll put in health-care costs, and all of sudden their plan doesn’t work.”

Drugs costs, in particular, surprise retirees, says David Armes, a financial planner in Long Beach, Calif., who specializes in helping clients evaluate Medicare options. “Many of these cost drivers cannot be accurately predicted when you’re in your 60s,” he says. “There’s no way for 65-year-olds to know, for instance, whether they will need to take expensive brand-name drugs when they reach their 80s.”

For affluent retirees, there can be another surprise with Medicare. Couples whose modified adjusted gross income exceeds $170,000 a year must pay higher premiums. To lessen those expenses, a couple might try shifting income to one year so that they will avoid higher Medicare premiums in other years, says Mr. Armes.

Long-term care. The need for long-term care is perhaps the most costly unexpected expense in retirement.

 

About 15% of retirees will spend more than $250,000 on such care, according to a research report to be released this spring by Vanguard Group The problem is it is impossible to know who will be part of that 15%. Some 50% of retirees won’t spend anything at all, and 25% will spend less than $100,000, the Vanguard report says.

“It’s hard to plan for,” says Colleen Jaconetti, a senior investment analyst with Vanguard.

For years, financial planners urged people to buy long-term care insurance. But that market has shrunk dramatically in recent years after insurers underestimated costs and were forced to jack up premiums or withdraw from new sales. Some insurers now offer hybrid policies that combine life insurance and long-term-care insurance. These policies allow consumers to tap their death benefits early to pay for costs such as help with feeding, bathing and other personal needs.

Living a long life. One of the biggest mistakes people make in estimating retirement expenses is underestimating how long they will live.

The average 65-year-old in the U.S., for example, is likely to live an additional 19.4 years, according to data from the National Center for Health Statistics.

Obviously, the longer the life, the more the spending. It can be a good problem to have—but one that surprises too many people.

“Everybody worries about dying young,” says Prof. David Littell of the American College of Financial Services. “People should be more worried about living too long.”

Mr. Templin is a writer in New Jersey. He can be reached at reports@wsj.com.

Appeared in the April 23, 2018, print edition.

 

This article was prepared by a third party for information purposes only. It is not intended to provide specific advice or recommendations for any individual. It contains references to individuals or entities that are not affiliated with Cornerstone wealth Management, Inc. or LPL Financial. LPL Tracking# 1-723395

 

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The Risks of Putting Too Much Money Into an Annuity

These private income contracts do have potential flaws.

It may not be good to have all your eggs in an annuity basket. Or even a majority of your eggs, financially speaking.

Fundamentally, an annuity contract means handing over your money to an insurer. In turn, the insurer pays out an income stream to you from that lump sum (or from the years of purchase payments you have made). The insurance company holds the money; you do not. From one standpoint, this arrangement has some merit; it relieves you of the burden of having to manage that money. From another standpoint, it has a few drawbacks.1,2

Annuities are often illiquid. If you run into a situation where you need cash in retirement (a major home repair, a legal settlement, big medical expenses), it may not be prudent to withdraw cash from your annuity. If you have not owned the annuity for some time, you may have to pay a hefty withdrawal penalty to access the money. From the insurer’s point of view, you are violating a contract. Should you have buyer’s remorse and decide you want out of your annuity contract soon after its inception, you will probably face a surrender charge. If you back out after the initial year of the contract, the surrender charge is commonly about 7% of your account value; it usually declines by a percentage point for each subsequent year you have spent in the annuity contract before surrendering.2

Annuities come with high annual fees. A yearly management fee of 1.25% or more is not uncommon. Then there are mortality and expense (M&E) fees, fees for add-ons and guarantees, and up-front charges. If you have a variable annuity, throw in investment management fees as well. These fees for variable annuities may effectively eat away at their annual returns.2

Annuity joint-and-survivor income provisions may not be as beneficial as they seem. Many annuities feature this payment structure, whereby the income payments continue to a surviving spouse after the death of one spouse. The downside of this arrangement: from the start, the income payments are less than what they ordinarily would be. If you are the annuity holder and you think your spouse may pass away before you do or are already confident that your spouse will be in a good financial position after your death, then a joint-and-survivor annuity payment structure may be nice, but not really necessary.3

If you do not yet own an annuity, consider that you may not need one. The federal government basically gives you the equivalent of a deferred annuity: Social Security. Like an annuity, Social Security provides you with a reliable income stream – and your Social Security income is adjusted for inflation.4

Think of an annuity as one potential piece of a retirement strategy. See it as a component or a supplement of that strategy, not the core.

This material was prepared by MarketingPro, Inc., and does not necessarily represent the views of the presenting party, nor their affiliates. This information has been derived from sources believed to be accurate. Please note – investing involves risk, and past performance is no guarantee of future results. The publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting or other professional services. If assistance is needed, the reader is advised to engage the services of a competent professional. This information should not be construed as investment, tax or legal advice and may not be relied on for the purpose of avoiding any Federal tax penalty. This is neither a solicitation nor recommendation to purchase or sell any investment or insurance product or service, and should not be relied upon as such. All indices are unmanaged and are not illustrative of any particular investment.

Citations.

1 – tinyurl.com/y9mukmp3 [2/28/18]

2 – annuitieshq.com/articles/annuities-good-bad-depends-actually/ [7/28/17]

3 – forbes.com/sites/forbesfinancecouncil/2018/03/29/five-reasons-not-to-buy-an-annuity/ [3/29/18]

4 – ssa.gov/oact/cola/latestCOLA.html [4/6/18]