Where Retirees Underestimate Spending         

Underestimating how much you’ll spend can be costly, so it’s key to know the common pitfalls

 

Navigating retirement can be difficult for lots of reasons. One of the biggest is that it forces people to make plans based on spending assumptions that won’t become a reality for decades.

Guessing wrong can be the difference between a comfortable retirement and one that is a struggle.

“It’s a lot more difficult to recover in retirement,” says Adam Van Wie, a financial planner in Jacksonville Beach, Fla. “You can try to find another job, but that’s not an option for everyone.”

We spoke to financial advisers about some of the most frequent mistakes people make when it comes to estimating how much they’ll spend in retirement.

Helping family. You may be willing to slash your own expenses in retirement if times get tough. What will you do if your children, or grandchildren, get in a bind? Saying no is much harder.

  • In Defense of thsy Retirement

But saying yes can imperil your own retirement. A number of parents who guaranteed their children’s school loans have seen their own finances ruined when the child defaulted on the loan.

Mark McCarron, a financial planner in Charlottesville, Va., is working with a retired couple who paid for the wedding of one daughter, and expect to pay shortly for the wedding of their other daughter as well.

They have the cash, says Mr. McCarron. The rub is that they just hadn’t planned on paying for weddings when they retired, and it reduces the funds they can draw upon for other purposes.

Big-ticket periodic items. Would-be retirees often meticulously estimate day-to-day expenses, but forget to factor in more periodic, and mostly predictable, expenses like a new car or a new roof. And those big-ticket items inevitably blow holes in their budgets.

Dana Anspach, a financial planner in Scottsdale, Ariz., recommends that clients set aside 3% of the value of their house each year for maintenance—as well as plan on setting aside money for the periodic new car.

One caveat: Beware of taking big chunks of money out of a 401(k) or other tax-deferred accounts, Ms. Anspach says. Such withdrawals are treated as taxable income and can push retirees into a higher tax bracket. A better approach is to withdraw the money gradually over a two- or three-year period for an expected expense.

Belinda Ellison of Greenville, S.C., who recently retired as a lawyer, sets aside money for unforeseen landscaping expenses. So she was ready when she had to spend $10,000 recently to remove a huge tree on her property. Ms. Ellison owns a 100-year-old home, and has another fund set up for renovation expenses.

It’s not so with everybody she knows. “I have friends who have trouble when they need a new set of tires,” Ms. Ellison says.

Entertainment. Many retirees are surprised at how much their entertainment costs rise when they stop working, says Neil A. Brown, a financial adviser in West Columbia, S.C. Instead of working five or six days a week and playing one, it can be the opposite. “You’ve got five or six days to play,” Mr. Brown says.

Americans age 65 to 74 spent an average $5,832 on entertainment in 2015, according to a study from the Employment Benefit Research Institute, based in Washington, D.C. Entertainment spending declines with age; people 85 and over in the study spent $2,232 on average.

Health care. Even Medicare recipients are frequently shocked by the cost of health care, says Joan Cox, a financial planner in Covington, La. Ms. Cox says a married couple in their late 60s can expect to spend close to $13,000 a year in medical expenses. That assumes $8,000 in Medicare premiums and supplemental insurance premiums, $1,200 for drug coverage, and $3,700 in out-of-pocket expenses.

 

“I’ll do their financial plan, and it looks like they have plenty of assets” for retirement, she says. “Then I’ll put in health-care costs, and all of sudden their plan doesn’t work.”

Drugs costs, in particular, surprise retirees, says David Armes, a financial planner in Long Beach, Calif., who specializes in helping clients evaluate Medicare options. “Many of these cost drivers cannot be accurately predicted when you’re in your 60s,” he says. “There’s no way for 65-year-olds to know, for instance, whether they will need to take expensive brand-name drugs when they reach their 80s.”

For affluent retirees, there can be another surprise with Medicare. Couples whose modified adjusted gross income exceeds $170,000 a year must pay higher premiums. To lessen those expenses, a couple might try shifting income to one year so that they will avoid higher Medicare premiums in other years, says Mr. Armes.

Long-term care. The need for long-term care is perhaps the most costly unexpected expense in retirement.

 

About 15% of retirees will spend more than $250,000 on such care, according to a research report to be released this spring by Vanguard Group The problem is it is impossible to know who will be part of that 15%. Some 50% of retirees won’t spend anything at all, and 25% will spend less than $100,000, the Vanguard report says.

“It’s hard to plan for,” says Colleen Jaconetti, a senior investment analyst with Vanguard.

For years, financial planners urged people to buy long-term care insurance. But that market has shrunk dramatically in recent years after insurers underestimated costs and were forced to jack up premiums or withdraw from new sales. Some insurers now offer hybrid policies that combine life insurance and long-term-care insurance. These policies allow consumers to tap their death benefits early to pay for costs such as help with feeding, bathing and other personal needs.

Living a long life. One of the biggest mistakes people make in estimating retirement expenses is underestimating how long they will live.

The average 65-year-old in the U.S., for example, is likely to live an additional 19.4 years, according to data from the National Center for Health Statistics.

Obviously, the longer the life, the more the spending. It can be a good problem to have—but one that surprises too many people.

“Everybody worries about dying young,” says Prof. David Littell of the American College of Financial Services. “People should be more worried about living too long.”

Mr. Templin is a writer in New Jersey. He can be reached at reports@wsj.com.

Appeared in the April 23, 2018, print edition.

 

This article was prepared by a third party for information purposes only. It is not intended to provide specific advice or recommendations for any individual. It contains references to individuals or entities that are not affiliated with Cornerstone wealth Management, Inc. or LPL Financial. LPL Tracking# 1-723395

 

These private income contracts do have potential flaws.

It may not be good to have all your eggs in an annuity basket. Or even a majority of your eggs, financially speaking.

Fundamentally, an annuity contract means handing over your money to an insurer. In turn, the insurer pays out an income stream to you from that lump sum (or from the years of purchase payments you have made). The insurance company holds the money; you do not. From one standpoint, this arrangement has some merit; it relieves you of the burden of having to manage that money. From another standpoint, it has a few drawbacks.1,2

Annuities are often illiquid. If you run into a situation where you need cash in retirement (a major home repair, a legal settlement, big medical expenses), it may not be prudent to withdraw cash from your annuity. If you have not owned the annuity for some time, you may have to pay a hefty withdrawal penalty to access the money. From the insurer’s point of view, you are violating a contract. Should you have buyer’s remorse and decide you want out of your annuity contract soon after its inception, you will probably face a surrender charge. If you back out after the initial year of the contract, the surrender charge is commonly about 7% of your account value; it usually declines by a percentage point for each subsequent year you have spent in the annuity contract before surrendering.2

Annuities come with high annual fees. A yearly management fee of 1.25% or more is not uncommon. Then there are mortality and expense (M&E) fees, fees for add-ons and guarantees, and up-front charges. If you have a variable annuity, throw in investment management fees as well. These fees for variable annuities may effectively eat away at their annual returns.2

Annuity joint-and-survivor income provisions may not be as beneficial as they seem. Many annuities feature this payment structure, whereby the income payments continue to a surviving spouse after the death of one spouse. The downside of this arrangement: from the start, the income payments are less than what they ordinarily would be. If you are the annuity holder and you think your spouse may pass away before you do or are already confident that your spouse will be in a good financial position after your death, then a joint-and-survivor annuity payment structure may be nice, but not really necessary.3

If you do not yet own an annuity, consider that you may not need one. The federal government basically gives you the equivalent of a deferred annuity: Social Security. Like an annuity, Social Security provides you with a reliable income stream – and your Social Security income is adjusted for inflation.4

Think of an annuity as one potential piece of a retirement strategy. See it as a component or a supplement of that strategy, not the core.

This material was prepared by MarketingPro, Inc., and does not necessarily represent the views of the presenting party, nor their affiliates. This information has been derived from sources believed to be accurate. Please note – investing involves risk, and past performance is no guarantee of future results. The publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting or other professional services. If assistance is needed, the reader is advised to engage the services of a competent professional. This information should not be construed as investment, tax or legal advice and may not be relied on for the purpose of avoiding any Federal tax penalty. This is neither a solicitation nor recommendation to purchase or sell any investment or insurance product or service, and should not be relied upon as such. All indices are unmanaged and are not illustrative of any particular investment.

Citations.

1 – tinyurl.com/y9mukmp3 [2/28/18]

2 – annuitieshq.com/articles/annuities-good-bad-depends-actually/ [7/28/17]

3 – forbes.com/sites/forbesfinancecouncil/2018/03/29/five-reasons-not-to-buy-an-annuity/ [3/29/18]

4 – ssa.gov/oact/cola/latestCOLA.html [4/6/18]

How much attention do you pay to this factor?

Will you pay higher taxes in retirement? Do you have a lot of money in a 401(k) or a traditional IRA? If so, you may receive significant retirement income. Those income distributions, however, will be taxed at the usual rate. If you have saved and invested well, you may end up retiring at your current marginal tax rate or even a higher one. The jump in income alone resulting from a Required Minimum Distribution could push you into a higher tax bracket.

While retirees with lower incomes may rely on Social Security as their prime income source, they may pay comparatively less income tax than you will in retirement; some, or even all, of their Social Security benefits may not be counted as taxable income.1

Given these possibilities, affluent investors might do well to study the tax efficiency of their portfolios; not all investments will prove to be tax-efficient. Both pre-tax and after-tax investments have potential advantages.

What’s a pre-tax investment? Traditional IRAs and 401(k)s are classic examples of pre-tax investments. You can put off paying taxes on the contributions you make to these accounts and the earnings these accounts generate. When you take money out of these accounts, you are looking at taxes on the withdrawal. Pre-tax investments are also called tax-deferred investments, as the invested assets can benefit from tax-deferred growth.2

What’s an after-tax investment? A Roth IRA is a classic example. When you put money into a Roth IRA, the contribution is not tax-deductible. As a trade-off, you don’t pay taxes on the withdrawals from that Roth IRA (so long as you have had your Roth IRA at least five years and you are at least 59½ years old). Thanks to these tax-free withdrawals, your total taxable retirement income is not as high as it would be otherwise.2

Should you have both a traditional IRA and a Roth IRA? It may seem redundant, but it could help you manage your marginal tax rate. It gives you an option to vary the amount and source of your IRA distributions considering whether tax rates have increased or decreased.

Smart moves can help you reduce your taxable income & taxable estate. If you’re making a charitable gift, giving appreciated securities that you have held for at least a year may be better than giving cash. In addition to a potential tax deduction for the fair market value of the asset in the year of the donation, the charity can sell the stock later without triggering capital gains for it or you.3

The annual gift tax exclusion gives you a way to remove assets from your taxable estate. In 2018, you may give up to $15,000 to as many individuals as you wish without paying federal gift tax, so long as your total gifts keep you within the lifetime estate and gift tax exemption. If you have 11 grandkids, you could give them $15,000 each – that’s $165,000 out of your estate. The drawback is that you relinquish control over those dollars or assets.4

Are you striving for greater tax efficiency? In retirement, it is especially important – and worth a discussion. A few financial adjustments could help you lessen your tax liabilities.

This material was prepared by MarketingPro, Inc., and does not necessarily represent the views of the presenting party, nor their affiliates. This information has been derived from sources believed to be accurate. Please note – investing involves risk, and past performance is no guarantee of future results. The publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting or other professional services. If assistance is needed, the reader is advised to engage the services of a competent professional. This information should not be construed as investment, tax or legal advice and may not be relied on for the purpose of avoiding any Federal tax penalty. This is neither a solicitation nor recommendation to purchase or sell any investment or insurance product or service, and should not be relied upon as such. All indices are unmanaged and are not illustrative of any particular investment.

What are the potential benefits? What are the drawbacks?

 

If you own a traditional IRA, perhaps you have thought about converting it to a Roth IRA. Going Roth makes sense for some traditional IRA owners, but not all.

Why go Roth? There is an assumption behind every Roth IRA conversion – a belief that income tax rates will be higher in future years than they are today. If you think that will happen, then you may be compelled to go Roth. After all, once you are age 59½ and have had your Roth IRA open for at least five years (five calendar years, that is), withdrawals of the earnings from your Roth IRA are exempt from federal income taxes. You can withdraw your Roth IRA contributions tax free and penalty free at any time.1,2

Additionally, you never have to make mandatory withdrawals from a Roth IRA, and if your income permits, you can make contributions to a Roth IRA as long as you live.2

For 2018, the income limits are $135,000 for single filers and $199,000 for joint filers, with phase-out ranges respectively starting at $120,000 and $189,000. (These numbers represent modified adjusted gross income.)2

While you may make too much to contribute to a Roth IRA, you have the option of converting a traditional IRA to a Roth. Imagine never having to draw down your IRA each year. Imagine having a reservoir of tax-free income for retirement (provided you follow Internal Revenue Service rules). Imagine the possibility of those assets passing to your heirs without being taxed. Sounds great, right? It certainly does – but the question is: can you handle the taxes that would result from a Roth conversion?1,3     

Why not go Roth? Two reasons: the tax hit could be substantial, and time may not be on your side.

A Roth IRA conversion is a taxable event. The I.R.S. regards it as a payout from a traditional IRA prior to that money entering a Roth IRA, and the payout represents taxable income. That taxable income stemming from the conversion could send you into a higher income tax bracket in the year when the conversion occurs.2

If you are nearing retirement age, going Roth may not be worth it. If you convert a large traditional IRA to a Roth when you are in your fifties or sixties, it could take a decade (or longer) for the IRA to recapture the dollars lost to taxes on the conversion. Model scenarios considering “what ifs” should be mapped out.

In many respects, the earlier in life you convert a regular IRA to a Roth, the better. Your income should rise as you get older; you will likely finish your career in a higher tax bracket than you were in when you were first employed. Those conditions relate to a key argument for going Roth: it is better to pay taxes on IRA contributions today than on IRA withdrawals tomorrow.

On the other hand, since many retirees have lower income levels than their end salaries, they may retire to a lower tax rate. That is a key argument against Roth conversion.

If you aren’t sure which argument to believe, it may be reassuring to know that you can go Roth without converting your whole IRA.

You could do a multi-year conversion. Is your traditional IRA sizable? You could spread the Roth conversion over two or more years. This could potentially help you avoid higher income taxes on some of the income from the conversion.2

Roth IRA conversions can no longer be recharacterized. Prior to 2018, you could file a form with your Roth IRA custodian or trustee to undo a Roth IRA conversion. The recent federal tax reforms took away that option. (Roth IRA conversions made during 2017 may still be recharacterized as late as October 15, 2018.)2

You could also choose to “have it both ways.” As no one can fully predict the future of American taxation, some people contribute to both Roth and traditional IRAs – figuring that they can be at least “half right” regardless of whether taxes increase or decrease.

If you do go Roth, your heirs might receive a tax-free inheritance. Lastly, Roth IRAs can prove to be very useful estate planning tools. If I.R.S. rules are followed, Roth IRA heirs may end up with a tax-free inheritance, paid out either annually or as a lump sum. In contrast, distributions of inherited assets from a traditional IRA are routinely taxed.3

This material was prepared by MarketingPro, Inc., and does not necessarily represent the views of the presenting party, nor their affiliates. This information has been derived from sources believed to be accurate. Please note – investing involves risk, and past performance is no guarantee of future results. The publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting or other professional services. If assistance is needed, the reader is advised to engage the services of a competent professional. This information should not be construed as investment, tax or legal advice and may not be relied on for the purpose of avoiding any Federal tax penalty. This is neither a solicitation nor recommendation to purchase or sell any investment or insurance product or service, and should not be relied upon as such. All indices are unmanaged and are not illustrative of any particular investment.

Citations.
1 – cnbc.com/2017/07/05/three-retirement-savings-strategies-to-use-if-you-plan-to-retire-early.html [7/5/17]
2 – marketwatch.com/story/how-the-new-tax-law-creates-a-perfect-storm-for-roth-ira-conversions-2018-03-26 [3/26/18]
3 – time.com/money/4642690/roth-ira-conversion-heirs-estate-planning/ [1/27/17]

How much attention do you pay to this factor?

Will you pay higher taxes in retirement? Do you have a lot of money in a 401(k) or a traditional IRA? If so, you may receive significant retirement income. Those income distributions, however, will be taxed at the usual rate. If you have saved and invested well, you may end up retiring at your current marginal tax rate or even a higher one. The jump in income alone resulting from a Required Minimum Distribution could push you into a higher tax bracket.

While retirees with lower incomes may rely on Social Security as their prime income source, they may pay comparatively less income tax than you will in retirement – because up to half of their Social Security benefits won’t be counted as taxable income.1

Given these possibilities, affluent investors might do well to study the tax efficiency of their portfolios; not all investments will prove to be tax-efficient. Both pre-tax and after-tax investments have potential advantages.

What’s a pre-tax investment? Traditional IRAs and 401(k)s are classic examples of pre-tax investments. You can put off paying taxes on the contributions you make to these accounts and the earnings these accounts generate. When you take money out of these accounts, you are looking at taxes on the withdrawal. Pre-tax investments are also called tax-deferred investments, as the invested assets can benefit from tax-deferred growth.2

What’s an after-tax investment? A Roth IRA is a classic example. When you put money into a Roth IRA, the contribution is not tax-deductible. As a trade-off, you don’t pay taxes on the withdrawals from that Roth IRA (so long as you have had your Roth IRA at least five years and you are at least 59½ years old). Thanks to these tax-free withdrawals, your total taxable retirement income is not as high as it would be otherwise.2

Should you have both a traditional IRA and a Roth IRA? It may seem redundant, but it could help you manage your marginal tax rate. It gives you an option to vary the amount and source of your IRA distributions considering whether tax rates have increased or decreased.

Smart moves can help you reduce your taxable income & taxable estate. If you’re making a charitable gift, giving appreciated securities that you have held for at least a year may be better than giving cash. In addition to a potential tax deduction for the fair market value of the asset in the year of the donation, the charity can sell the stock later without triggering capital gains for it or you.3

The annual gift tax exclusion gives you a way to remove assets from your taxable estate. In 2018, you may give up to $15,000 to as many individuals as you wish without paying federal gift tax, so long as your total gifts keep you within the lifetime estate and gift tax exemption. If you have 11 grandkids, you could give them $15,000 each – that’s $165,000 out of your estate. The drawback is that you relinquish control over those dollars or assets.4

Are you striving for greater tax efficiency? In retirement, it is especially important – and worth a discussion. A few financial adjustments could help you lessen your tax liabilities.

This material was prepared by MarketingPro, Inc., and does not necessarily represent the views of the presenting party, nor their affiliates. This information has been derived from sources believed to be accurate. Please note – investing involves risk, and past performance is no guarantee of future results. The publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting or other professional services. If assistance is needed, the reader is advised to engage the services of a competent professional. This information should not be construed as investment, tax or legal advice and may not be relied on for the purpose of avoiding any Federal tax penalty. This is neither a solicitation nor recommendation to purchase or sell any investment or insurance product or service, and should not be relied upon as such. All indices are unmanaged and are not illustrative of any particular investment.

A look at some of the choices.

Many Households are saving too little for the future. According to one new analysis, 41% of Gen Xers and 42% of baby boomers have yet to begin saving for retirement. In a recent financial industry survey, 35% of small business owners said they were planning to use the sale proceeds from their company for a retirement fund, an idea which comes with a flashing question mark.1,2

Do you need to build retirement savings? Take a look at these retirement plans:

SEP-IRA: low fees, easy to implement and maintain. These plans cover sole proprietors and their workers with no setup fees or yearly administration charges. Your business makes all the contributions with tax-deductible dollars. The amount of the contribution your company can deduct is the lesser of your contributions or 25% of an employee’s compensation. You can even skip contributions in a lean year.3,4

SIMPLE IRAs and 401(k)s: low maintenance, high contribution limits. In contrast to SEP-IRAs, Savings Incentive Match Plan (SIMPLE) IRAs are largely employee-funded. A worker can direct as much as $12,500 or 100% of compensation (whichever is less) into a SIMPLE IRA per year. That current $12,500 annual contribution limit rises to $15,500 for plan participants 50 and older. Matching employer contributions are required: you can either put in 2% of an employee’s annual compensation, or match employee contributions dollar-for-dollar up to 3% of the employee’s annual compensation.2,4

Does your company have less than 100 workers? Do you want a 401(k) plan that is relatively easy to administer? The SIMPLE 401(k) might do. This is a regular 401(k) with a key difference: the employer must match employee contributions in the manner described in the previous paragraph. As with the SIMPLE IRA, employee contributions are elective. Contributions to a SIMPLE 401(k) vest immediately. While you must file a Form 5500 annually with the I.R.S., no non-discrimination testing is necessary for these 401(k)s.2,4

Solo 401(k)s: One way to “play catch-up.” Both pass-through firms and C corps can install these plans, which allow a solopreneur to contribute to a retirement plan as both an employee and an employer. In 2018, a business owner can direct up to $55,000 into a solo 401(k). As with a standard 401(k), participants age 50 and older can make a $6,000 catch-up contribution each year. If you are 50 or older, your maximum annual contribution could be as large as $61,000.2,5,6

If you are behind on retirement saving, a solo 401(k) presents a beneficial opportunity to help you grow your retirement fund. The catch is that your business must be very small and stay that way. You can only have one employee besides yourself, and that employee must be your spouse. Solo 401(k)s do need plan administrators, but no Form 5500 is needed until the plan assets top $250,000. If you have a corporation, your solo 401(k) contributions are characterized by the I.R.S. as business expenses. If your business is unincorporated, you may deduct your solo 401(k) contributions from your personal income.2

The solo 401(k) offers even more savings potential for a married couple. Your employed spouse can make an employee contribution to the plan (limit of $18,500/$24,500 annually), and you can then make a profit-sharing contribution of up to 25% of his or her compensation as the employer. You can even have a Roth solo 401(k).4,6

Roth and traditional IRAs: the individual retirement planning mainstays. These accounts currently let you save and invest up to $5,500 a year ($6,500 a year if you are 50 or older). Both permit tax-advantaged growth of the invested assets. With a Roth IRA, contributions are not tax-deductible, but distributions are tax-free provided I.R.S. rules are followed. Roth IRAs never require mandatory withdrawals when you reach your seventies. Withdrawals from traditional IRAs are taxed as regular income, but contributions are often fully tax-deductible; withdrawals must begin when the account owner is in his or her seventies.2,7 

Roth and traditional 401(k)s: the small business standard. These plans now have annual contribution limits of $18,500 ($24,500 for those 50 and older). Your 401(k) contributions reduce your taxable income. Assets within all 401(k)s grow with tax deferral. Some 401(k) plans now feature a Roth option. The rules for Roth 401(k)s mirror those for Roth IRAs, with a notable exception: Roth 401(k) plan participants usually must begin taking mandatory withdrawals from their accounts once they reach age 70½.8,9 

Contact the financial professional you know and trust to discuss these plans. You should build adequate retirement savings for the future, and your prospects for retirement should not depend on the future of your business.

This material was prepared by MarketingPro, Inc., and does not necessarily represent the views of the presenting party, nor their affiliates. This information has been derived from sources believed to be accurate. Please note – investing involves risk, and past performance is no guarantee of future results. The publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting or other professional services. If assistance is needed, the reader is advised to engage the services of a competent professional. This information should not be construed as investment, tax or legal advice and may not be relied on for the purpose of avoiding any Federal tax penalty. This is neither a solicitation nor recommendation to purchase or sell any investment or insurance product or service, and should not be relied upon as such. All indices are unmanaged and are not illustrative of any particular investment.

«RepresentativeDisclosure»

Citations.
1 – fool.com/retirement/2018/01/29/guess-how-many-gen-xers-and-baby-boomers-have-no-r.aspx [1/29/18]
2 – inc.com/hr-outsourcing/best-retirement-plans-for-small-businesses.html [2/2/18]
3 – irs.gov/retirement-plans/retirement-plans-faqs-regarding-seps-contributions [10/25/17]
4 – trustetc.com/resources/investor-awareness/contribution-limits [2/6/18]
5 – irs.gov/retirement-plans/one-participant-401k-plans [10/25/17]
6 – nerdwallet.com/blog/investing/what-is-a-solo-401k/ [7/24/17]
7 – cbsnews.com/news/new-tax-law-roth-vs-traditional-ira-or-401k/ [2/6/18]
8 – investopedia.com/ask/answers/112515/are-401k-contributions-tax-deductible.asp [1/30/18]
9 – forbes.com/sites/greatspeculations/2017/03/17/__trashed-55/ [3/17/17]

A retirement savings vehicle designed for the smallest businesses.

A solo 401(k) lets a self-employed individual set up a 401(k) plan combined with a profit-sharing plan. You can create one of these if you work for yourself or for you and your spouse.1

Reduce your tax bill while you ramp up your retirement savings. Imagine nearly tripling your retirement savings potential. With a solo 401(k), that is a possibility. Here is how it works:

*As an employee, you can defer up to $18,500 of your compensation into a solo 401(k). The yearly limit is $24,500 if you are 50 or older, for catch-up contributions are allowed for these plans.1

*As an employer, you can have your business make a tax-deductible, profit-sharing contribution of up to 25% of your compensation as defined by the plan. If your business isn’t incorporated, the annual employer contribution limit is 20% of your net earnings rather than 25%. If you are a self-employed individual, you must calculate the maximum amount of elective deferrals and non-elective contributions you can make using the methods in Internal Revenue Service Publication 560.1,2

*Total employer & employee contributions to a solo 401(k) are capped at $55,000 for 2018.1

Are you married? Add your spouse to the mix. If your spouse is a full-time employee of your business, then he or she can also make an employee contribution to the plan in 2018, and you can make another profit-sharing contribution on your spouse’s behalf. (For this to happen, your spouse must have net self-employment income from the business.)2,3

The profit-sharing contributions made by your business are tax-deductible. Annual contributions to a solo 401(k) are wholly discretionary. You determine how much goes in (or doesn’t) per year.2,4

You can even create a Roth component in your solo 401(k). You can direct up to $5,500 annually (or $6,500 annually, if you are 50 or older) into the Roth component of the plan. You cannot make employer contributions to the Roth component.3

Rollovers into the plan are sometimes permitted. Certain plan providers even allow hardship withdrawals (loans) from these plans prior to age 59½.5

There are some demerits to the solo 401(k). As you are setting up and administering a 401(k) plan for your business, you have to see that it stays current with ERISA and IRC regulations. Obviously, it is much easier to oversee a solo 401(k) plan than a 401(k) program for a company with 15 or 20 full-time employees, but you still have some plan administration on your plate. You may not want that, and if so, a solo 401(k) may have less merit than a SEP or traditional profit-sharing plan. The plan administration duties are relatively light, however. There are no compliance testing requirements, and you will only need to file a Form 5500 annually with the I.R.S. once the assets in your solo 401(k) exceed $250,000.4 

If you want to hire more employees, your solo 401(k) will turn into a standard 401(k) plan per the Internal Revenue Code. The good news is that you can present your new hires with an established 401(k) plan.2,3

On the whole, solo 401(k)s give SBOs increased retirement savings potential. If that is what you need, then take a good look at this option. These plans are very easy to create, their annual contribution limits far surpass those of IRAs and stand-alone 401(k)s, and some custodians for solo 401(k)s even give you “checkbook control” – they let you serve as trustee for your plan and permit you to invest the funds across a variety of different asset classes.5

This material was prepared by MarketingPro, Inc., and does not necessarily represent the views of the presenting party, nor their affiliates. This information has been derived from sources believed to be accurate. Please note – investing involves risk, and past performance is no guarantee of future results. The publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting or other professional services. If assistance is needed, the reader is advised to engage the services of a competent professional. This information should not be construed as investment, tax or legal advice and may not be relied on for the purpose of avoiding any Federal tax penalty. This is neither a solicitation nor recommendation to purchase or sell any investment or insurance product or service, and should not be relied upon as such. All indices are unmanaged and are not illustrative of any particular investment.

Citations.
1 – irs.gov/retirement-plans/one-participant-401k-plans [10/25/17]
2 – mysolo401k.net/solo-401k/solo-401k-contribution-limits-and-types/ [2/13/18]
3 – doughroller.net/retirement-planning/solo-401k-best-retirement-plan-self-employed/ [5/21/17]
4 – tdameritrade.com/retirement-planning/small-business/individual-401k.page [2/13/18]
5 – thecollegeinvestor.com/18174/comparing-the-most-popular-solo-401k-options/ [12/11/17]

Once away from work, your cost of living may rise before it falls.

New retirees sometimes worry that they are spending too much, too soon. Should they scale back? Are they at risk of outliving their money?

This concern is legitimate. Many households “live it up” and spend more than they anticipate as retirement starts to unfold. In ten or twenty years, though, they may not spend nearly as much.1

The initial stage of retirement can be expensive. Looking at mere data, it may not seem that way. The most recent Bureau of Labor Statistics figures show average spending of $60,076 per year for households headed by Americans age 55-64 and mean spending of just $45,221 for households headed by people age 65 and older.1,2

Affluent retirees, however, are often “above average” in regard to retirement savings and retirement ambitions. Sixty-five is now late-middle age, and today’s well-to-do 65-year-olds are ready, willing, and able to travel and have adventures. Since they no longer work full time, they may no longer contribute to workplace retirement plans. Their commuting costs are gone, and perhaps they are in a lower tax bracket as well. They may be tempted to direct some of the money they would otherwise spend into leisure and hobby pursuits. It may shock them to find that they have withdrawn 6-7% of their savings in the first year of retirement rather than 3-4%.

When retirees are well into their seventies, spending decreases. In fact, Government Accountability Office data shows that people age 75-79 spend 41% less on average than people in their peak spending years (which usually occur in the late 40s). Sudden medical expenses aside, household spending usually levels out because the cost of living does not significantly increase from year to year. Late-middle age has ended and retirees are often a bit less physically active than they once were. It becomes easier to meet the goal of living on 4% of savings a year (or less), plus Social Security.2

Later in life, spending may decline further. Once many retirees are into their eighties, they have traveled and pursued their goals to a great degree. Staying home and spending quality time around kids and grandkids, rather than spending money, may become the focus.

One study finds that medical costs burden retirees mostly at the end of life. Some economists and retirement planners feel that retirement spending is best depicted by a U-shaped graph; it falls, then rises as elders face large medical expenses. Research from investment giant BlackRock contradicts this. BlackRock’s 2017 study on retiree spending patterns found simply a gradual reduction in retiree outflows as retirements progressed. Medical expenses only spiked for most retirees in the last two years of their lives.3

Retirees in their sixties should realize that their spending will likely decline as they age. As they try to avoid spending down their assets too quickly, they can take some comfort in knowing that in future years, they could possibly spend much less.

This material was prepared by MarketingPro, Inc., and does not necessarily represent the views of the presenting party, nor their affiliates. This information has been derived from sources believed to be accurate. Please note – investing involves risk, and past performance is no guarantee of future results. The publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting or other professional services. If assistance is needed, the reader is advised to engage the services of a competent professional. This information should not be construed as investment, tax or legal advice and may not be relied on for the purpose of avoiding any Federal tax penalty. This is neither a solicitation nor recommendation to purchase or sell any investment or insurance product or service, and should not be relied upon as such. All indices are unmanaged and are not illustrative of any particular investment.Citations.
1 – kiplinger.com/article/retirement/T037-C032-S014-why-the-4-withdrawal-rule-is-wrong.html [1/25/18]
2 – fortune.com/2017/10/25/retirement-costs-lower/ [10/25/17]
3 – cbsnews.com/news/rethinking-a-common-assumption-about-retirement-spending/ [12/26/17]

How much can you contribute this year?

In 2018, you have another chance to max out your retirement accounts. Here is a rundown of yearly contribution limits for the popular retirement savings vehicles.

IRAs. The 2018 limits are the same as in 2016: $5,500 for IRA owners who will be 49 and younger this year and $6,500 for IRA owners who will be 50 or older this year. These limits apply to both Roth and traditional IRAs.1

What if you own multiple IRAs? This $5,500/$6,500 limit applies to your total IRA contributions for a calendar year. So, for example, should you happen to have five IRAs, you could make an equal contribution of $1,100 (or $1,300) to each of them in 2017 or unequal contributions to them not exceeding the applicable $5,500/$6,500 limit.2

Keep in mind that you can fund your 2017 IRA(s) until April 17, 2018 (the 2017 federal income tax deadline). It is best to fund your IRA for a particular year right as that year starts, but if you procrastinated for any reason in 2017, you still have time.2

High earners may find their ability to make a full Roth IRA contribution restricted. This applies to a single filer or head of household whose adjusted gross income falls within the $120,000-135,000 range and to married couples whose AGIs land between $189,000-199,000. If your AGI exceeds the high ends of those phase-out ranges, you may not make a 2018 Roth IRA contribution. (For tax year 2017, the respective phase-out ranges are $118,000-133,000 and $186,000-196,000.)2,3

401(k)s, 403(b)s, and 457s. Each of these employee retirement plans have 2018 contribution limits of $18,500. The 2018 contribution limit is $24,500, however, if you will be 50 or older this year – that means you are eligible to make a “catch-up” contribution of up to $6,000 above the usual limit.1,3

Both 403(b) and 457(b) plans offer savers special catch-up contribution opportunities. If you participate in a 403(b) plan, you can also opt to take advantage of its 15-year rule: if you have 15 or more years of tenure and your average yearly contribution to the plan has been $5,000 or less, you can direct an extra $3,000 per year into the plan. If you are enrolled in a 457(b) plan sponsored by a state or local government agency, you can contribute up to double the standard annual limit each year if you are within three years of normal retirement age (as the plan defines). In 2017, that meant that you could put up to $36,000 into your 457(b) plan in that circumstance; in 2018, the limit becomes $37,000. You can make this “double contribution” and the standard catch-up contribution of up to $6,000 if you are 50 or older in 2018.4

SIMPLE IRAs and SEP-IRAs. In 2018, the contribution limit for a SIMPLE IRA is $12,500; those who will be 50 or older this year may contribute up to $15,500. Business owners need to match these annual employee contributions to at least some degree. Self-employed individuals can contribute as an employee and employer to a SIMPLE IRA.5

Business owners and the self-employed can also contribute to SEP-IRAs. All contributions to these accounts have to come from the business, and all contributions are tax deductible. The annual contribution limit on a SEP-IRA is very high – in 2018, it is either $55,000 or 25% of the business owner’s net self-employment income, whichever is lower.5

This material was prepared by MarketingPro, Inc., and does not necessarily represent the views of the presenting party, nor their affiliates. This information has been derived from sources believed to be accurate. Please note – investing involves risk, and past performance is no guarantee of future results. The publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting or other professional services. If assistance is needed, the reader is advised to engage the services of a competent professional. This information should not be construed as investment, tax or legal advice and may not be relied on for the purpose of avoiding any Federal tax penalty. This is neither a solicitation nor recommendation to purchase or sell any investment or insurance product or service, and should not be relied upon as such. All indices are unmanaged and are not illustrative of any particular investment.Citations.
1 – cbsnews.com/news/irs-allows-higher-retirement-savings-account-limits-in-2018/ [10/24/17]
2 – fool.com/retirement/2017/10/22/heres-the-2018-ira-contribution-limit.aspx [10/22/17]
3 – tinyurl.com/ybbqgf26 [10/20/17]
4 – investopedia.com/articles/personal-finance/111615/457-plans-and-403b-plans-comparison.asp px [12/18/17]
5 – tickertape.tdameritrade.com/retirement/2017/11/retirement-plans-small-entrepreneur-13586 [11/22/17]

The most meaningful measure of how well we’re serving our clients is whether we exceed their expectations in delivering the value and commitment they need to pursue their life and financial goals.

That’s why I wanted to share with you the news that LPL and its affiliated advisors, including Cornerstone Wealth Management, were recently ranked No. 1 in customer loyalty among 21 leading financial distributor firms. It means a great deal for us to be part of a network that’s a recognized industry leader in providing quality personal service—and it’s an even greater honor that LPL has risen in these rankings in each of the past three years.

The rankings were among the findings in Investor Brand BuilderTM, a Cogent ReportsTM study released by Market Strategies International, in which 4,408 affluent investors nationwide were surveyed.*

The study explored the key aspects of client experience that drive investor loyalty. On each of the top 5 drivers of investor loyalty, LPL earned No. 1 rankings by exceeding client expectations in the following areas:

  • Quality of investment advice
  • Financial stability
  • Easy to do business with
  • Range of investment products and services
  • Retirement planning services

In addition, LPL ranked No. 1 in the likelihood of its investors recommending the firm and its advisors to their friends, families, and colleagues.

As an advisors affiliated with LPL Financial, I we are proud of this recognition by investors of the value of the objective financial advice we offer to help clients pursue their goals, and of the innovative products and services our affiliation with LPL allows us to provide access to.

I appreciate the opportunity to partner with you, and I look forward to our continued work together. Thank you for your business.

This letter was prepared by LPL Financial LLC. This is not a recommendation to purchase, or an endorsement of, LPL Financial stock. LPL Financial and Cogent are unaffiliated entities.

*Market Strategies International, Cogent Wealth Reports, “Investor Brand Builder™: Maximize Purchase Intent Among Investors and Expand Client Relationships,” November 2017.

ABOUT THE REPORT: Market Strategies International’s Cogent Wealth Reports: Investor Brand Builder™ provides a holistic view of key trends affecting the affluent investor marketplace. The November 2017 report is based on a web survey of over 4,000 affluent investors, who hold $100,000 or more in investable assets. A total of n=82 LPL advisor clients were represented in the study. Customer Loyalty is based on how likely the participant would recommend each of their investment account companies to friends, family, or colleagues. Participants also evaluate their investment account companies using a 5-point rating scale across 10 aspects of client experience.